Definition Alloy Two metals mixed together to achieve a unique characteristic different from a compound where two chemicals combine to form a different substance. A metal alloy combines metals to obtain characteristics slightly different from the components used. Some metals are “elemental” meaning they are a unique chemical element found on the periodic table of elements. Seven of these — gold, copper, silver, lead, tin, iron, and mercury — were used by early metallurgists. Brass, bronze and steel are examples of alloys of those elemental metals. Anglesmith A person who bends or joins metal to form angular shapes. Annealing Heating a metal to remove stresses or hardening, usually to a temperature just below the metal’s melting point. Anvil A heavy metal working piece on which metal objects are hammered or forged. In ancient times anvils were made of stone. Anvilsmith Maker of anvils and hammers for blacksmiths.
Charlotte Schriwer of the Nasser D Khalili Collection of Islamic art examines the achievements of the early Islamic scientists; skilled physicians, mathematicians and astronomers who seamlessly combined religion and science. Detailed scientific manuals and handbooks,elaborately decorated magic medicine bowls, talismans and amulets, and rare alchemical equipment, as well as delicately produced globes mapping stars and constellations across the skies, add to this incomparable collection of scientific instruments and tools.
Many of these have not been studied in great detail, and although their function and purpose may still remain an enigma to scholars of Islamic art and history today, there is no doubt that these objects were essential and reflect the necessity of science in everyday life for any individual, regardless of their status in society.
Furthermore, although not all objects may display great beauty in the historical sense, their interest lies in their purpose; if not in the aesthetic, at least in the functional. Medieval Islamic scholars were renowned for their scientific knowledge and were often far ahead of their European counterparts.
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Whether we realize it or not, objects are a huge aspect of who we are and how we represent ourselves to others. Through objects, my sorority has developed its own, unique identity and has been able to pass down traditions for generations. In examining a handful of sorority objects, I hope to reveal our history and some of our most important traditions, both the old and the new. There, my grandmother approached me with this pin.
She told me it was her sister pin while she was an active sister meaning while she was in the sorority at New Paltz. On the back is the needle used to pin the spoon onto whatever clothing a sister is wearing. The pin is something you receive upon becoming an official member of a Greek organization. I was so proud to hold it, to have my first true letters. The pin, to me, represents that I am part of something bigger than myself.
The spoon pin also represents something similar; you are truly a part of the organization. However, when I asked my grandmother why it was in the shape of a spoon, she told me it was to represent hospitality.
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Depending on the object, the first and last steps may be unnecessary. Checking the Lacquer Prior to cleaning a lacquered brass item you should determine if you should first remove the lacquer. Lacquer is a thin, clear coating that is sprayed or painted onto an object to protect it from oxygen, thereby delaying the development of tarnish.
Lacquer that is chipped or cracked may need to be removed to make the object look its best. To remove lacquer put the item in a pot of boiling water containing teaspoons each of baking soda and washing soda not detergent.
Imitation – A Closer Look at Bronze Sculpture. Sculpture by almost every important artist is widely available as a reproduction complete with artist signatures.
Based upon a preliminary global assessment in which the USGS is participating, discovered and undiscovered land-based copper resources are expected to exceed 3 billion metric tons. Geological Survey, Until well into the s, most copper used in the U. The United States was the world’s largest copper producer until ; beginning in , Chile became the world’s leading copper producer.
Excluding wire production, most of which uses newly refined copper, nearly two-thirds of the amount used by copper and brass mills, ingot makers, foundries, powder plants and other industries comes from recycled scrap. Copper Fact 3 Almost half of all recycled copper scrap is old post-consumer scrap, such as discarded electric cable, junked automobile radiators and air conditioners, or even ancient Egyptian plumbing.
Yes, it’s been around that long. The remainder is new scrap, such as chips and turnings from screw machine production. Copper Fact 5 Man has been recycling copper throughout history. During the Middle Ages, which saw frequent conflicts, bronze an alloy of copper and tin cannons were typically melted down after each war and made into more useful items. Discarded electrical wiring, plumbing tube, cartridge cases from the military, automobile radiators and production scrap are some of the main sources for reclaimed copper today.
Copper Fact 6 According to the U. Copper in Architecture Copper Fact 1 Copper has played an important role in the design and architecture of all types of structures for thousands of years. In ancient Egypt, the massive doors to the temple of Amen-Re at Karnak were clad with copper.
History[ edit ] Although forms of brass have been in use since prehistory ,  its true nature as a copper-zinc alloy was not understood until the post medieval period because the zinc vapor which reacted with copper to make brass was not recognised as a metal. Many have similar tin contents to contemporary bronze artefacts and it is possible that some copper-zinc alloys were accidental and perhaps not even distinguished from copper.
There is good archaeological evidence for this process and crucibles used to produce brass by cementation have been found on Roman period sites including Xanten  and Nidda  in Germany , Lyon in France  and at a number of sites in Britain. The fabric of these crucibles is porous, probably designed to prevent a buildup of pressure, and many have small holes in the lids which may be designed to release pressure  or to add additional zinc minerals near the end of the process.
Dioscorides mentioned that zinc minerals were used for both the working and finishing of brass, perhaps suggesting secondary additions.
How to Clean Brass The basic process of how to clean brass consists of three steps: checking its lacquer, cleaning the item and replacing lacquer. Depending on .
Metalwork is perhaps the most continuous and best-documented artistic medium from Iran in the Islamic period. At times, echoing the forms of more ephemeral or less costly materials such as ceramics, metalwork from Iran and adjacent lands served a wide variety of utilitarian functions. These were nonetheless luxury wares that absorbed the creative energy of some of the best artists and reflected the main artistic trends and the tastes of successive dynasties.
Written sources are an important means of documenting this medium. In addition to literary works, primarily geographical texts in Arabic and Persian, which provide information on centers of production and sources of metal ores Allen, , pp. Iranian metalwork is therefore an important resource for understanding the art Iran in the Islamic period in particular and the history of Islamic art in general.
Silver and gold plate, especially the former, provide a well-documented art form in Sasanian Iran and in pre-Islamic western Central Asia. Sasanian silver vessels bowls, dishes, cups, ewers, and bottles , often decorated with imperial symbolism such as the royal hunt Harper and Meyers, pp. This can explain the existence of a large group of mainly silver gilt objects that continue and readapt the Sasanian style. As the new Islamic polity asserted control over Iran and the territories to its east, many of the same metalwork forms and techniques continued to develop and evolve, while much of the representational imagery gradually lost its original meaning.
It seems likely that objects fashioned of both silver and gold persisted as status symbols for the new aristocracy. It is therefore often difficult to pinpoint where Sasanian art ends and Islamic art begins in the first centuries of Muslim rule. The situation with contemporary base metal is similar, but these objects also stand more obviously in a definable relationship to Islamic art.
For example, a tall, pear-shaped cast bronze ewer, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and set on a high foot with handle in the form of an elongated panther exemplifies the transition from the Late Antique to the early Islamic period Figure 1.
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Screws are relative newcomers to the production of furniture primarily because they are so hard to make by hand. But as the complexity and sophistication of furniture increased in the late 17th century and the use of brass hardware, locks and concealed hinges became more popular, there was an obvious need for a fastener that could hold two surfaces together without having to penetrate the back surface of the second piece.
The screw on the left was handmade in the late 18th century. Note the flat spot on the shaft, the irregular threads, blunt tip and the off center slot. The screw in the center is machine made around It has sharp, even threads, a cylindrical shape, blunt end and the slot is still off center.
Engraving Brass tobacco box. Engravers created designs on objects by removing lines of metal from the surface using a tool called a ‘burin’. Engravers were specialists who worked on both copperplates for printing and finished metal objects.
After treatment the marble was cleaned and treated with a protective wax. After careful reconstruction of the damage done by fitting knobs the piece was french polished and waxed. After Careful re-gluing and doweling of the ring, some minor veneer repairs the piece was french polished and waxed. Victorian Writing table This late Victorian Writing table had suffered badly from watermarking. After French polishing the colour of the timber can be fully appreciated. After fitting the replacement feet and some minor veneer repairs the piece was cleaned and waxed.
Antique Brass Identification
By Zololkree Examine it for signs that it may be handmade. If the item is large, take pictures to bring with you. Antique Reproductions The value of antique reproductions can be high and solid brass ones will likely appreciate over time. How to Identify General Antiques For other antique objects, the process involves more examination of the item and its construction.
“A piece of mixed metal, or ancient brass, consisting of 12 equal sides,” read the description of the egg-sized object when it was presented to the Society of Antiquaries in London in
Mesopotamia In the museum at Baghdad, in the British Museum , and in the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia are finely executed objects in beaten copper from the royal graves at Ur modern Tall al-Muqayyar in ancient Sumer. This relief illustrates the high level of art and technical skill attained by the Sumerians in the days of the 1st dynasty of Ur c. The malleability of unalloyed copper, which renders it too soft for weapons, is peculiarly valuable in the formation of vessels of every variety of form; and it has been put to this use in almost every age.
Copper domestic vessels were regularly made in Sumer during the 4th millennium bc and in Egypt a little later. Egypt From whatever source Egypt may have obtained its metalworking processes, Egyptian work at a remote period possesses an excellence that, in some respects, has never been surpassed. Throughout Egyptian history, the same smiths who worked in the precious metals worked also in copper and bronze. Nearly every fashionable Egyptian, man or woman, possessed a hand mirror of polished copper, bronze, or silver.